See below for a list of the scientific publications that ECOCEAN has co-authored.


Norman B. and Morgan D. (2016) The return of “Stumpy” the whale shark: two decades and counting. Front Ecol Environ 2016; 14(8):449–450, doi:10.1002/fee.1418
Web link

Norman B, Reynolds S and Morgan D. (2016) Does the whale shark aggregate along the Western Australian coastline beyond Ningaloo Reef? Pacific Conservation Biology 22(1) 72-80
Web link

Gleiss, A.C., Norman, B.N. and Wilson, R.P. 2011.  Moved by that sinking feeling: variable diving geometry underlies movement strategies in Whale Sharks.  Functional Ecology, Vol. 25, Issue 3: 595–607.

Gleiss, A.C., Block, B.A., Campagna, C., Grundy, E., Hays, G., Jorgensen, J., Liebsch, N., Norman, B., Quintana, F., Sala, J., Trites, A. and Wilson, R.P. 2011. Convergent evolution in locomotory patterns of flying and swimming animals. Nature Communications. doi: 10.1038/ncomms1350.

Catlin, J., Jones, T., Norman, B. and Wood, D. 2010. Consolidation in a Wildlife Tourism Industry: The Changing Impact of Whale Shark Tourist Expenditure in the Ningaloo Coast Region. International Journal of Tourism Research. Vol. 12, Issue 2: 134-148.

Schmidt, J.V., Chien, C-C., Sheikh, S.I., Meekan, M.G., Norman, B.M. and Joung, S-J. 2010.  Paternity analysis in a litter of whale shark embryos. Endangered Species Research, 12:117-124.

Norman, B.M., Bradley, D.E. and Holmberg, J.A. 2010 Whale Shark Photo-identification Monitoring at Ningaloo Marine Park 2010.  Unpublished Report for WA Department of Environment and Conservation, Exmouth, Western Australia 12pp.

Norman B (2009) ECOCEAN Best Practice Whale Shark Ecotourism UNEP MANUAL. Technical Report (United Nations Environment Program – Regional Seas) 7pp.
Web link.

Holmberg J & Norman B (2009) ECOCEAN Whale Shark Photo-identification – UNEP MANUAL. Technical Report (United Nations Environment Program – Regional Seas) 69pp.
Web link.

Jones, T., Wood, D., Catlin, J. and Norman, B. 2009. Expenditure and ecotourism: predictors of expenditure for whale shark tour participants. Journal of Ecotourism Vol. 8, Issue 1: 32-50.

Gleiss, A.C., Norman, B., Liebsch, N., Francis, C. and Wilson, R.P. 2009. A new prospect for tagging large free-swimming sharks with motion-sensitive data-loggers.  Fisheries Research 97: 11-16.

Holmberg, J., Norman, B. and Arzoumanian, Z. 2009.  Estimating population size, structure, and residency time for whale sharks Rhincodon typus through collaborative photo-identification. Endangered Species Research Vol. 7: 39-53.

Holmberg, J., Norman, B. and Arzoumanian, Z. 2008.  Robust, comparable population metrics through collaborative photo-monitoring of whale sharks Rhincodon typus. Ecological Applications 18(1): 222-223.

Norman, B. and Stevens, J.  2007.  Size and maturity status of the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) at Ningaloo Reef in Western Australia.  Fisheries Research Vol. 84, Issue 1, 81-86.

Arzoumanian, Z., Holmberg, J. and Norman, B. 2005.  An astronomical pattern-matching algorithm for computer-aided identification of whale sharks Rhincodon typusJournal of Applied Ecology 42, 999-1011.


A further list is on this page


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *